点击右上角微信好友

朋友圈

QINGSHIYONGLIULANQIFENXIANGGONGNENGJINXINGFENXIANG

基金配资 > 社科 > 正文

乡镇政府体制性困局及其应对

来源:2020-01-17 10:15

调查问题加载中,请稍候。
若长时间无响应,请刷新本页面

  作者简介:中国社会科学院政治学研究所“政治发展与国家治理”项目首席研究员,博士生导师 周少来

  摘要:金融行业乡镇政府,在基层社会治理中处于关键地位,发挥着基础性作用。但面临着众多“体制性困局”:权责不等而在“压力型体制”下失衡运转,“层层加码”而使失衡运转日益严重,钱少事多而在财政拮据中无法自主,人杂活多而在“纷繁事务”中被动工作,考核检查而在“形式主义”中拼凑应对,同时乡镇干部队伍的稳定性令人担忧。只有深化体制性改革,赋予地方政府更大的自主权,健全乡镇政府的权责体制,扩大基层民众的民主参与,才能构建民主法治的乡村治理体系。

  关键词:乡镇政府;权责体制;层层加码;治理体系

  XIANGZHENZHENGFUZUOWEIZUIJICENGDEYIXIANZHENGFU,SHIGUOJIAQUANLIHEZHENGFUQUANWEIDEDIFANGDAIBIAO,SHIGEXIANGGUOJIAZHENGCEHEGONGCHENGXIANGMUDEJUTILUOSHIZHE,YESHIZHENGFUYUXIANGCUNSHEHUIDEZHIJIEJIECHU“JIEMIAN”,CHENGDANZHELUOSHIGUOJIAYIZHIHEWEIHUXIANGCUNWENDINGFAZHANDEJIBENZEREN。ZAIQUANMIANTUIJINSHEHUIZHUYIXIANDAIHUADEXINZHENGCHENGZHONG,JICENGXIANGZHENZHENGFUCHENGDANLEFANZHONGDEGONGGONGFUWUHEFAZHANZHONGREN,GEDIDEXIANGZHENGANBUYEZUOCHULEJUDADENULIHEGONGXIAN。

  DANJINNIANLAI,SUIZHECHENGXIANGYITIHUADEKUAISUFAZHANHEXIANGCUNSHEHUIJIEGOUDESHENKEBIANQIAN,TEBIESHIJINGZHUNFUPINHEXIANGCUNZHENXINGZHANLVEDESHENRUTUIJIN,ZAI“XIAN、XIANGTIZHI(BAOKUOXIANGZHENTIZHI)”HEXIANGZHENYUNXINGLUOJIJIBENBUBIANDEZHIDUXINGYUESHUXIA,XIANGZHENZHENGFUZAI“ZHINENG”YU“ZEREN”FANGMIAN,CHUXIANLEZHONGDUOJIEGOUHUA“TIZHIXINGKUNJU”。ZHEIYOUQIFUZADETIZHIXINGZHIDUGENYUAN,YANZHONGYINGXIANGZHEJICENGZHILIDEJIXIAOHEXIANDAIHUA。JIXUQUANMIANSHENHUAZHENGFUTIZHIGAIGE,JINKUAIJIAYIZHIDUXINGGENBENJIEJUE。

  一、权责不等:乡镇政府在“压力型体制”下失衡运转

金融行业  YIJIZHENGFU、YIJIQUANLI,YOUDUODADEQUANLI,JIUCHENGDANXIANGYINGDEDUODAZEREN,QUANZEDUIDENGHEQUANZEFENMING,SHIXIANDAIZHENGFUKECENGZHIGUANLIDEJIBENYUANZE。DANZAIXIANXINGDEXINGZHENGGUANLITIZHIZHONG,“QUANLIJINZITA”DETIZHIJIAGOU,CONGGENBENSHANGJUEDINGLEJICENGXIANGZHENZHENGFUDE“QUANLIJIEGOU”。“XIANGSHANGJIQUAN、XIANGXIAFENZE”DE“YALIXINGTIZHI”YOULAIYIJIU[1],SUIJINGGUODUOCIDE“CHEXIANGBINGZHEN”DENGXIANGZHENGAIGE,DANQIGENBENDE“YALIXINGTIZHI”HEYUNXINGLUOJIZHANGQIQIANFUBINGJIBENBUBIAN。JINNIANLAI,ZAIQUANMIANJIAQIANGXIANGCUNJIANSHEHEXIANGCUNZHENXINGDETUIJINZHONG,TEBIESHIZAI“JINGZHUNFUPIN”HE“HUANJINGBAOHU”DENG“XIANSHIXING”ZHENGZHIRENWUDEWANCHENGZHONG,XIANGZHENZHENGFUZAI“YALIXINGTIZHI”XIASHIHENGYUNZHUAN,“QUANZEBUDENG”DETIZHIXINGXIANXIANGJINYIBUTUXIAN。

  QUANZEBUDENG,JIQUANLIXIAO、ZERENDA,ZHEISHIYALIXINGTIZHIXIAJICENGZHENGFUDE“TIZHIXINGCHANGTAI”。ZHISHISUIZHEJINNIANLAIJICENGZHENGFUSHIWUHEGONGCHENGXIANGMUDEJIJUZENGJIA,ZHEIYI“JIEGOUXINGSHIHENG”RIYIJIAJU。

金融行业  YISHIANZHAOXIANXINGFALVHEXINGZHENGFAGUIDE“SHOUQUANGUANLI”,GUOJIAFALVHEXINGZHENGFAGUIGUIDINGDEGEXIANG“ZHIFAQUAN”,FUYUDEZUIZHONGSHISHIDANWEI,JIBENDOUSHIXIANJIZHENGFUJIQIZHINENGBUMEN,XIANGZHENZHENGFUSUIRANCHENGDANZHEGEXIANG“XINGZHENGSHIWU”DE“LUOSHIQUAN”,DANBINGWUXINGZHENGSHIWUDE“ZHIFAQUAN”,RUZAITUDI、HUANBAO、WEISHENG、JIAOYU、SHEHUIZHIANDENGFANGMIANDEXINGZHENGZHIFAQUAN,JIHUDOUSHIXIANJIXIANGGUANZHINENGBUMENCAIYOUXIANGGUANFALVHETIAOLISHOUYUDE“ZHIFAQUAN”[2]。

  ERSHIXIANJIZHENGFUJIQIZHINENGBUMEN(RUXIANWEIBAN、ZUZHIBU、JIAOYUJU、HUANBAOJU、FUPINBANDENG),DOUYOU“QUANLI”TONGGUOGESHIGEYANGDE“XINGZHENGZERENSHU”,BABENYINGYOUBENZHINENGBUMENFUZEWANCHENGDEGEXIANG“DANGZHENGRENWU”,ZHUXIANGZHUTIAODIXIAFANGDAOGEGE“XIANGZHEN”。DANYOUGUAN“XIANGMUZIJIN”HE“XIANGMUYANSHOU”DEZUIZHONG“SHIZHIXINGQUANLI”,HAISHIZHANGWOZAIGEGEXIANGMUZHUANXIANGBANGONGSHIHEZHINENGBUMEN。

  SANSHIXIANGZHENZHENGFUDUIXIANJIZHENGFUJIQIZHINENGBUMENXIADADEGEXIANGRENWU,TONGGUOFENJIELIANGHUADE“ZERENZHUANG”,ZHINENGWUTIAOJIAN“ZHAODANJIESHOU”,SHAOYOU“TAOJIAHAIJIA”DEYUDI。YINWEIWULUNNAGEZHUANXIANGBANGONGSHIHUOZHINENGJU,DOUZHANGWOZHEDALIANGDE“ZHUANXIANGZIJINHEZIYUAN”,BINGZUIZHONGZHANGWOZHEGEGEXIANGZHENZHENGFUJIQIGANBUDE“JIANCHAKAOHEYANSHOUQUAN”,ZHIJIEYINGXIANGZHEGEGEXIANGZHENDE“NIANZHONGPINGBI”HE“GANBUSHENGQIAN”。SUOYI,XIANJIDEGEGEZHUANXIANGBANGONGSHIHEZHINENGBUMEN,DOUSHIRENHEXIANGZHENZHENGFU“BUGANDEZUI”DE“JUEDUISHANGJIBUMEN”(1)。

  XIANGZHENZHENGFU,ZAI“QUANZEBUDENG”DEZHIDUYUESHUXIA,RIYICHENGXIANYANZHONGDE“SHIHENGTAI”YUNZHUAN。TONGSHIYOUYUCENGCENGCHUANDAOYALIDEZERENJIAMAJIZHI,ZAIGESHIGEYANGJUTIRENWUDE“LUOSHIZHIXING”GUOCHENGZHONG,XIANJIZHENGFUJIQIZHINENGBUMENDE“XINGZHENGZEREN”YEJIUYANZHEXINGZHENGLIANTIAO“DABIANCHE”,JIHUYILUQUANBU“XIAXIE”DAOGEGEXIANGZHENZHENGFU。ERZUOWEIMOUHUAXIANYUJINGJISHEHUIQUANMIANFAZHANDEZHUYAOFUZEZHE,XIANJIZHENGFUJIQIZHINENGBUMEN,ZEZHANGWOZHEJUEDUIDE“ZIYUANFENPEIQUAN”HE“JIANCHAYANSHOUQUAN”,XIANGZHENZHENGFUBIANZAIRIYIYANZHONGDE“QUANZESHIHENG”ZHONG,YILUPANSHANFUZHONGQIANXING。

  二、“层层加码”:乡镇政府失衡运转的隐形逻辑

金融行业  RANER,ZHEIYI“XINGZHENGYUNXINGLUOJI”SHIRUHELUODISHIXIANDE?XIANGZHENZHENGFUWEISHENMEJIHUMEIYOU“ZIZHUXUANZEDEQUANLI”?CHULEYISHANGSUOSHUODE“FALVFAGUIZHIFAQUAN”DESHOUYUCENGJIYIWAI,GENGYOUYUXIANSHIXINGZHENGQUANLIYUNXINGZHONG“CENGCENGJIAMA”DEYINXINGJIZHI,CONGERSHI“QUANZEBUPINGHENG”WENTINANYINIGAI。

  CICHUSUOSHUODE“CENGCENGJIAMA”,SHIZHIXINGZHENGTIZHIHEXINGZHENGQUANLIYUNZHUANDE“YINXINGLUOJI”,SHIZHIJIEZHU“CENGCENGCHUANDAOYALI”DE“QUANLILIANTIAO”,ZISHANGERXIACHUANDICONGYANZHIDANGHEKUAISUFAZHANGEXIANGYALIDETONGSHI,SHANGJIZHENGFUJIXIANGGUANBUMENTONGSHI“DABIANCHESHI”DIBA“GEZHONGZERENCHUANDIXIAQU”。RUWANCHENGRENWUSHIJIANSHANGDE“GANCHAOJINDU”,GONGZUOFANWEISHANGDE“KONGJIANKUODA”,SHENHUOGEXIANGRENWUZHIBIAOSHANGDE“CENGCENGZHUIJIA”,ZHEIXIEDOUSHIRENMENNENGGOUMINGXIANGANSHOUDAODE“XIANXINGRENWU”,XUEJIEYEDUOYOUJIESHIHEFENXI[3]19-70。DANZAIQIBEIHOU,ZEYINHANZHE“CENGCENGXIAXIEZEREN”DEYINXINGLUOJI。

金融行业  “CENGCENGCHUANDAOYALI”,ZHEISHIZHONGGUO“GANCHAOXINGXIANDAIHUA”NENGGOUSHIXIAN“LISHIXINGTISU”DEGUANJIANJIZHI,YESHIZHIZHENGDANGHEZHENGFUFAHUI“JIZHONGLILIANGBANDASHI”ZHIDUYOUSHIDEGUANJIANLUJING,ZHEISHIBIXUJIAYIZHENGMIANKENDINGDE。

  TONGSHI,XINSHIDAIDANGZHONGYANG“QUANMIANCONGYANZHIDANG”XINXINGSHI,DOUYAOQIUZHONGYANGDEZHENGLINGCHANGTONGHEQUANDANGFUCONGZHONGYANG,ZHEISHIWOMENBIXUJIANJUEYONGHUHEZHIXINGDE。ZHEILIFENXIDE“CENGCENGJIAMA”DEYINXINGSHENGCHENGJIZHI,ZHUYAOSHIZHIKENENGDAILAIZHENGZHIYINHUANHEZHENGZHICHENGBENDE“FUMIAN”ZHENGZHIXIANXIANG。ZHEICONGXIANGZHENZHENGFUZUOWEI“CENGCENGJIAMA”DE“YALIDEZUIHOUCHENGJIEZHE”ZHEIYISHIJIAO,KEYIKANDEGENGWEIQINGCHU。

  CONGQUANMIANCONGYANZHIDANG、QUANMIANYIFAZHIGUODAOQUANMIANSHENHUAGAIGE,ZHONGYANGDEGEXIANGJUECEZHENGCE,DOUBIXUBIANCHENGGEJIZHENGFUGAIGEFAZHANDEQIESHIXINGDONG,DANGRANXIANGZHENZHENGFUYEBULIWAI,GENGYINGGAIZOUZAIGUANCHELUOSHIGEXIANGFAZHANRENWUDEDIYIXIAN。ZHEIBIANSHIZHONGYANGYIZAIYAOQIUDE“CENGCENGCHUANDAOYALI”DEZONGZHISUOZAI。ZHEIJIUZAIYOUXINGHUOWUXINGZHONG,JIADALEGEJIZHENGFUHELINGDAOGANBUDE“ZHENGZHIXINGYALI”,QIZHONGJIUBAOKUOLUOSHIZHENGCEHEWANCHENGRENWUDE“ZHENGCEXINGYALI”。JINNIANLAI,TEBIESHIZAIDANGFENGLIANZHENGJIANSHEZHUTIZEREN、XINFANGWEIWENZHUTIZEREN、HUANJINGBAOHUZHUTIZEREN、GONGGONGANQUANZHUTIZERENDENGDENGFANGMIAN,GEJILINGDAOGANBUDOUYIZAIDIGANSHOUDAOGEZHONGZERENDE“YALISHANDA”,ZHEIYESHIGEJIGANBUPINBOCHUANGXINDEJINGSHENDONGLI。

金融行业  DANSHI,GEXIANGZHENGCEHEGONGCHENGRENWUDEJUTIWANCHENG,XUYAOXIAJIZHENGFULAITUIJINHELUOSHI,SUOYIZAI“CENGCENGCHUANDAOYALI”DEGUOCHENGZHONG,XUYAOJIXIAJIZHENGFUHEGANBUGENGDADE“YALIHEZEREN”,YIBAOZHENG“LIUYOUSHIJIANHEZHIBIAOYUDI”WANCHENGSHANGJIRENWU。ZAIJINGZHUNFUPINHEXIANGCUNJIANSHEDENGGEXIANGRENWULUOSHIZHONG,XIAN、XIANGZHENLIANGJIZHENGFUCHENGSHOUZHEJUTIWANCHENGSHISHIDEJIANJUSHIMING,DANXIANJIZHENGFUJIQIZHINENGBUMEN,ZIRANJUYOU“QUANLIHUIXUANYUDI”,ZAI“XIACHUANRENWUYALI”DETONGSHI,ZIJUEBUZIJUEDIBA“XIANGGUANZEREN”“DABIANCHESHI”DISHUNLU“DABAOYIQI”,XIACHUANJIJICENGXIANGZHEN。ERZUOWEIZUIJICENGDEXIANGZHEN,ZIRANMEIYOUDUOSHAOXIACHUANDE“QUANLIHUIXUANYUDI”。YINCI,ZAI“CENGCENGXIACHUANYALI”DEXINGZHENGRENWUZHIXINGGUOCHENGZHONG,JIUJIYOUKENENGBIANCHENGLE“CENGCENGYALIZENGJIA”HE“CENGCENGZERENXIAXIE”DESHUANGZHONGCHUANDAOGUOCHENG。“CENGCENGJIAMAJIZHI”YEJIUZAIZHENGCERENWUDEXIACHUANZHONG,“YINXING”DIBIANXINGWEI“CENGCENGXIAXIEZEREN”JIZHI[4]。

金融行业  ZHEIBIANSHI“CENGCENGXIACHAZEREN”,ZHIDAOXINGZHENGDICENGBUNENGZAI“XIACHA”DEXIANGZHEN“JICENGZHIXINGZHE”,ZHEIWEIGEZHONGZERENDE“CENGCENGJIAMAXIAXIE”LIUYOUTIZHIXING“TONGDAO”。ZHEIZHONGGEDIXIANGZHENZHENGFUSHIHENGYUNZHUAN、“ZERENSHANDA”DEYINXING“CENGCENGJIAMA”JIZHI,JIUWEIGESHIGEYANGSUOWEIDE“XIANGZHENZHILIWEIJI”HE“ZHILIGUAIXIANXIANG”DEBUDUANCHUXIAN,MAIXIALETIZHIXINGDE“ZHIDUHUAFUBI”HE“ZHIDUHUAKONGJIAN”。

  三、钱少事多:乡镇政府在财政拮据中无法自主

金融行业  “YIJIZHENGFU、YIJICAIZHENG”,ZHEISHIGONGGONGCAIZHENGGUANLIZHONGDEJIBENYUANZE,YESHIYIJIZHENGFUZIZHUZHINENGFAHUIDEJINGJIBAOZHANG。“MEIYOUQIAN,WUFAZIZHU”DIKAIZHANGONGZUO,ZHEISHIZAIQUANGUOGEDIDIAOYANZHONG,XIANGZHENZHENGFULINGDAOPUBIANDEBAOYUAN。

  ZHEIZHONGXIANGZHENCAIZHENGJIEJUYUXINGZHENGSHIWUZENGDUODE“CIXIAOBIZHANG”,ZAIJINNIANLAIDEXIANGZHENZHILIZHONGGENGJIATUXIAN。

  YISHICAISHUITIZHIDEGENBENXINGZHIYUE,ZAI1994NIANDEFENSHUIZHIGAIGEHE2005NIANNONGYESHUIDEQUANMIANQUXIAOZHIHOU,GEGEDIFANGZHENGFUDECAIZHENGYALIZENGDA。GEDIZHENGFUDOUZAINULIKAITUODIFANGSHUISHOUHEZENGJIADIFANGCAIZHENGSHOURU,RUJIADATUDICHURANGJINDEZHENGSHOU,YINCI,“ZHENGDIQUAN”CHENGWEIGEDIFANGZHENGFUXINGZHENGZHUDAODEFAZHANLIQI[5]166。DAN“ZHENGDIQUAN”DEFALVSHOUQUANCENGJISHIXIANJIZHENGFU,XIANGZHENZHENGFUBINGMEIYOU“ZICHUANGSHUISHOUQUAN”DEHEFAZIGE。SUIRANZAIDONGNANYANHAIGONGSHANGYEFADADEYIXIEXIANGZHEN,YEDUODUOSHAOSHAODICUNZAIGESHIGEYANGDE“HUISE”HUO“DACHABIANQIUSHI”DETUDICHURANGHUODONG,DANZAIZHONGXIBUYINONGYEWEIZHIZHUCHANYEDEDUOSHUXIANGZHEN,“ZIZHUCHUANGSHOU”DEKONGJIANQISHIHENXIAO,“HOUNONGYESHUISHIDAI”,XIANGZHENCAIZHENGJIEJUGENGJIAYANZHONG。

  ERSHI,XIAN、XIANGCAISHUITIZHIDEYUESHU,NONGYESHUIQUANMIANQUXIAOZHIHOU,DUIYUGUANGDAZHONGXIBUDIQUDEXIAN、XIANGLIANGJIZHENGFULAISHUO,CAIZHENGYALIZENGDASHIZIRANDEQUSHI。DANDUIXIAN、XIANGZHENLIANGJIZHENGFULAISHUO,DUICAIZHENGYALIDE“GANSHOU”HE“HUIYING”BINGBUXIANGTONG。XIANJIZHENGFU,YIFANGMIANKEYITONGGUOKAIFA“XIANYUCHENGSHI”,TONGGUOZENGSHOU“TUDICHURANGJIN”LAIHUANJIEYALI;LINGYIFANGMIAN,XIANJIZHENGFUKEYITONGGUO“XIAN、XIANGCAIZHENGTIZHI”,JIQUANGUOGEDIPUBIANTUIXINGDE“XIANGCAIXIANGUAN”,LAIZUIDAXIANDUDIBA“CAIZHENGYALI”ZHUANYIXIAXIEJIGEGEXIANGZHEN。YINCI,ZHEIZHONG“CAIQUANSHANGJI、SHIQUANXIACHEN”DEFUCOUSHICAIZHENGTIZHI,SHIJICENGXIANGZHENCAIZHENGYALIJUZENGDEYIGEZHONGYAOTIZHIGENYUAN[6]7。TONGSHI,YEJIADALEXIANGZHENZHENGFUDUIXIANJIZHENGFU、XIANJICAIZHENGDETIZHIXINGYILAIGUANXI。

  SANSHI,ZAICAILISHOUXIAN、SHIWUZENGDUODE“FAZHANYALI”XIA,GEDIXIANGZHENZHENGFU,TEBIESHICHUANTONGSHANG70%~80%DECAIZHENGYILAINONGYESHUIDEZHONGXIBUDIQUXIANGZHEN,“FUZHAIFAZHAN”DEYINXINGJIZHIJIUQIAORANSHENGCHENG。YIFANGMIAN,SHI“WEIGUANYIREN、ZAOFUYIFANG”DEZERENSHIMING,JIASHANGGESHIGEYANGDE“ZHENGJIKAOHEPINGBI”,GEGEXIANGZHENDOUHUIZAIGONGGONGSHESHI、JIAOYUYILIAO、XINNONGCUNJIANSHE、ZHAOSHANGYINZI、HUANJINGMEIHUADENGFANGMIAN,SHICHUGESHI“ZHAOSHU”,NULITUIDONGBENXIANGZHENGONGYIFAZHAN;LINGYIFANGMIAN,XIANGZHENDESHUJI、XIANGZHENZHANG,DOUSHI“WAILAIDEGANBU”(CHUYUDIYUHUIBI,CONGBENXIANYUBIEDEXIANGZHENDIAOLAI),DOUJUYOUQIANGLIEDE“ZHENGJICHONGDONG”,ZHIYOU“DAGANKUAISHANG”,JINKUAIDUOCHUZHENGJI,CAINENG“SHANGDIAO”HUIDAOXIANCHENG,FOUZEYOUKENENGZHANGQI“DAIZAI”YIGEPINQIONGDEXIANGCUN。

  YOUYU“CENGCENGXIACHUAN”DECAIZHENGYALI,JIAZHIBENXIANGZHENCAIZHENGZENGSHOUDEKONGJIANYOUXIAN,GEDIXIANGZHENFAZHANDOUZAI“JINGQIAOQIAO”DI“FUZHAIQIANXING”。ZHEISUIRANJIHUSHI“GONGKAIDEMIMI”,DANZAIGEDIDIAOYANZHONG,YAODIAOCHAQINGCHUMEIGEXIANGZHENDE“FUZHAIXIANGQING”,JIHUBI“DENGTIANHAINAN”。YINWEIZHEISHIXIANGZHENLINGDAOJILIBAOSHOUDE“DIFANGGUOJIAJIMI”,YESHITAMEN“XINZHONGDETONG”。HAIYOU,JINIANQIAN、SHENZHIJISHINIANQIAN,QIANREN、SHENZHIQIANQIANRENDELINGDAO,TONGGUOGESHIGEYANGFANGSHI“JIEDEGEZHONGZHAIWU”,HOURENHEXIANRENLINGDAOYEGENBEN“WABUQINGCHU”,GENGWU“JIEZHAIYAOHAI”DEDONGJIDONGLI。GELUXUEZHE,YIJUBUTONGDEDIAOCHAFANGSHIHEDIAOCHABUTONGDEXIANGZHEN,DEZHIGEDIFUZHAIQINGKUANG“DATONGXIAOYI”:ZHAOSHUKAIZAI2005SUODIAOCHADE20GEXIANGZHENZHONG,16GEXIANGZHENDEZONGZHAIWUSHI5600WANYUAN,PINGJUNMEIGEXIANGZHENFUZHAI280WANYUAN,ZUIGAODEYIGEXIANGZHENFUZHAI1000WANYUAN[3]118。JU2008NIANDE《NANFANGRIBAO》BAODAO,WOGUODIFANGZHENGFUZHONGZHAIWUZHISHAOZAI1WANYIYUANYISHANG,QIZHONGXIANGZHENZHENGFUFUZHAIZONGEZAI2200YIYUANZUOYOU,PINGJUNMEIGEXIANGZHENFUZHAI400WANYUAN,BINGQIEZAIYIXIEBUFADAXIANGZHEN,GEZHONGZHAIWUZHENGZAIRUGUNXUEQIUSIDEYUELAIYUEDA[7]4。

金融行业  RANER,ZAIXIANGZHENCAIZHENGRUCIJIEJUDECAILIJINZHANGQINGKUANGXIA,XIANGZHENSUOYAOFUZEDEGESHIGEYANG“FAZHANRENWU”,YETONGYANGRUGUNXUEQIUSIDEYUELAIYUEDUO。CONGDALEILAISHUO,YIGEXIANGZHENFANWEIDEJINGJIFAZHAN、SHEHUIWENDING、JICHUJIAOYU、WEISHENGYILIAO、JIAOTONGANQUAN、GONGGONGZHIXU、HUANJINGBAOHU、WAILAIRENKOUGUANLIDENGDENG,DOUSHIXIANGZHENZHENGFUBIXUFUZEDEDASHI。JUTILAISHUO,RUJIHUASHENGYU(YIPIAOFOUJUE)、SHEHUIZHIANZONGHEZHILI(NIANDUKAOHE)、SENLINZIYUANBAOHU(NIANDUKAOHE)、YIFAZHIZHEN(YIPIAOFOUJUE)、XUEXIAOWEIFANGGAIZAO(YIPIAOFOUJUE)、GONGLUGAIZAOYUKUOXIU(YIPIAOFOUJUE)、CHUANGJIANSHENGSHIXIANJINJIAOYUZHEN(YIPIAOFOUJUE)、DANGFENGLIANZHENGJIANSHE(YIPIAOFOUJUE)、XINFANGWEIWEN(YIPIAOFOUJUE)、JINGZHUNFUPIN(YIPIAOFOUJUE)、XINNONGCUNJIANSHE(NIANDUKAOHE)、HEDAOZHILI(NIANDUKAOHE)、JIAOTONGHEGONGGONGANQUAN(YIPIAOFOUJUE)、FANGMAIJIANPAI(YIPIAOFOUJUE)DENGDENG[7]98。KANKANYIGEXIANGZHEN“YIPIAOFOUJUE”ZERENZHIDEDUOSHAO,JIUZHIDAOQICHENGSHOUDESHIWUHEYALIYOUDUODA。GENGWEIYANZHONGDESHI,ZHIYAOYIGEXIANGZHENYOUYIXIANG“GONGZUO”BEI“YIPIAOFOUJUE”DIAO,QITA“GONGZUO”ZUODEZAIHAO,YEKENENG“BAIDA”。BUDANBENXIANGZHENYINIANDEQUANBUGONGZUODENGYU“BAIFEI”,BUKENENGPAISHANGNIANZHONGDE“KAOHEYOUXIU”,QUANBUXIANGZHENGANBUDE“JIANGJINFULI”DOUYAOSHOUDAOYINGXIANG,QISHUJI、ZHENZHANGDE“JINSHENG”YEKENENGYAOYAOWUWANG。QIZHONG,DAOZHI“YANZHONGSHIGU”DE,HAIKENENGBEIJIYUGEZHONGDANGJIHEXINGZHENGCHUFEN,SHENZHIBEI“JIUDIMIANZHI”。WOMENZHEIYANGSHUO,JUEBUSHIZHIYIQUANMIANCONGYANZHIDANGDEZHONGYAOXING,YEBUSHIWEIBUFUZERENHEFUBAIDEGANBUBIANHU,ZHISHIKEGUANDISHUOMINGGEDIJICENGXIANGZHENGANBUCHENGSHOUDEZERENHEYALI。ERZHEIXIEZERENHEYALI,YOUJUEFEI“GANBUZUOFENGHESUZHI”SUONENGWANQUANJIANDANJIAYIJIESHIDE。

  四、人杂事多:乡镇政府在“纷繁事务”中被动工作

  GUANYU“XIANGZHENJIGOUHERENYUAN”,SHIFOUCHAOBIAN?CHAOBIANDUOSHAO?SHIFOURENMANWEIHUAN、RENFUYUSHI,HAISHIRENSHAOSHIDUO、MANGYUYINGFU?SIHUSHIYIGEYONGYUANZHENGLUNBUQINGDEWENTI。ZHEIJIUYAOXIANGDUIYUYIDIYIYUJIQIBENDIDEJINGJISHEHUIFAZHAN,LAIJUTIDIJIAYIFENXI。“GONGSHANGXINGXIANGZHEN”,TEBIESHIYANHAIFADADIQUHEGEBIENEIDIJINGJIFADADEXIANGZHEN,JINGJISHEHUIFAZHANCHENGDUGAO,CHENGZHENHUAJUJIXIAOYINGMINGXIAN,BUDANBENDIHUJIRENKOUQINGXIANGYU“JUCHENGERJU”,ERQIEYOUDALIANGDE“WAILAIDAGONGRENYUAN”。RUZHEJIANGLEQINGSHI、WENLINGSHIDEYIXIEXIANGZHEN,BENDIHUJIRENKOUBUZU10WAN,KENENGJIUYOU12WAN~13WANZHIDUODEWAILAIDAGONGRENYUAN(2)。ERGUANGDONGDONGGUANSHIZHUMINGDEHUMENZHEN,HUJIRENKOU12.4WAN,ERCHANGZHURENKOUCHAOGUO50WAN。ZHEIYANGDE“RENKOUZHONGDUO”DEXIANGZHEN,XIANGZHENDEJIGOUHERENYUANJIUXIANDESHIFENBUZU。ERZHONGXIBUYINONGYEWEIZHIZHUDE“NONGYEXINGXIANGZHEN”,BENDIJINGJIBUFADA,ERQIEYOUDALIANGDE、SHENZHIYIBANYISHANGDEZHONGQINGNIANWAICHUDAGONG,RUQINGHAISHENG、GUIZHOUSHENGDEYIXIEXIANGZHEN,XIANGZHENDIYUFANWEINEIJIUXIANDESHIFEN“LENGQING”,CISHIXIANGZHENDEJIGOUHEGANBUJIUKENENGCHUXIAN“RENFUYUSHI”。

  ERYISHANGZHEIXIEBIANHUA,SHIYUJICENGXIANGZHENZHENGFUDEGAIGEJINMIXIANGGUAN,XIANGZHENJIGOUGAIGEZONGDELUOJISHI“CHEXIANGBINGZHEN”HE“JIANREN、JIANSHI、ZENGXIAO”。CONG1985NIAN,QUANGUOFEICHURENMINGONGSHE,JIANLIXIANGZHENZHENGFU,QISHIGONGYOU91590GEXIANGZHENZHENGFU[8]2。QIHOU,XIANGZHENGAIGEFANFANFUFU,YILUTUIJIN“CHEXIANGBINGZHEN”:1985NIAN,XIANGZHENSHULIANGGAODA9.1WANGE,1986NIANJIANDAO6WANGEYIXIA,1992NIANJIANDAO5WANGEYIXIA,2001NIANJIANDAO4WANGEYIXIA,2005NIANJIANDAO3.5WANDUOGE,2008NIANJIANDAO3.43WANGE[6]63。JINGGUOJINJINIANDEYOUYILUNXIANGZHENCHEBING,QUANGUOXIANGZHENZONGSHUJIANGZHI3WANGEZUOYOU。

  ERJINGGUODUOCIDE“CHEXIANGBINGZHEN”,XIANGZHENDEGUANLIFUDUZENGDALE,DANXIANGZHENDEJIGOUHERENYUANBIANZHI,SHIZHONGZUNXUN“ZHIJIANBUZENG”DE“TIEDEYUANZE”。XIANGDUIYUKUAISUFAZHANDEXIANGZHENDIYUJINGJISHEHUIZHUANGKUANG,XIANGZHENDEJIGOUHERENYUANKEYIFENWEISILEI:YISHIXIANGZHENZHENGFUZHILINGDAOHEDANGZHENGZONGHEBANGONGSHI、JINGJIFAZHANBANGONGSHI、SHEHUISHIWUBANGONGSHI,QIRENYUANSUOZHANDE“XINGZHENGBIAN”。ERSHIXIANGZHENZHENGFUZHIJIELINGDAODEXIASHUSHIYEDANWEI,RUXIANGZHENDEWENHUAZHAN、GUANGBOZHAN、NONGJIZHAN、JINGYINGZHAN、LINYEZHANDENG,QIRENYUANWEISHIYEBIANZHI。SANSHISHELIZAIXIANGZHENDEXIANJIJIGUANPAIZHUXIANGZHENDEJIGOU,RUPAICHUSUO、GONGSHANGSUO、SHUIWUSUO、SHUILIZHAN、XINYONGSHEDENG,SHIXINGSUOWEIDE“SHUANGZHONGLINGDAO”,DANDUOSHUSHIYIXIANJIZHUGUANBUMENLINGDAOWEIZHU。SISHIGEGEXIANGZHENHUODUOHUOSHAO“PINYONGRENYUAN”,SHIGEGEXIANGZHENDEFAZHANZHUANGKUANGHECAILIZHUANGKUANGERDING,QIRENYUANGONGZIYOUXIANGZHENZIXINGJIEJUE。

金融行业  YOUCIZAOCHENGLEGEGEXIANGZHENDE“RENZASHIDUO”,ZAICHENGXIANGYITIHUAHEXIANGCUNZHENXINGKUAISUTUIJINDEDANGQIAN,GENGSHITUIDONGLEXIANGZHENGONGZUODE“YUNDONGSHIZHILI”。ZHEIBIANSHICHAOYEGONGZHIDE“SHANGMIANQIANTIAOXIAN、XIAMIANYIGENZHEN”,YINWEIGEXIANGXINGZHENGXINGHEGONGCHENGXINGSHIWU,DOUYAOXIANGZHENZHENGFU“ZUIHOULUOSHI”。XIANSHIZHONGGENGSHITONGGUO“CENGCENGZERENZHUANG”DEQIANDING,POSHIJICENGZHENGFUBIANCHENGLE“SHANGMIANQIANGECHUI,XIAMIANYIGEDING”。ZHONGYANGJIANCHAZU、SHENGJIJIANCHAZU、SHIJIJIANCHAZU、XIANJIJIANCHAZU,RENHESHANGJIZHUICHADE“ZERENDEBANZI”,DOUNENG“DADAO”XIANGZHENZHENGFUDETOUSHANG。

  DANSHIJINGGUODUOLUNDE“CHEXIANGBINGZHEN”,XIANYOUXIANGZHENGUANLIFUDUHEGUIMOSUIRANPUBIANKUODA,ERXIANGZHENZHENGFUBIANZHISHIZHONGZUNXUN“ZHIJIANBUZENG”DEYUANZE。GONGSHANGYEFADADEDAXIANGZHEN,BIANZHIYOULIUQISHIREN(XINGZHENGBIANJIASHANGSHIYEBIAN),NONGYEXINGDEXIAOXIANGZHENYOUSANSISHIREN(XINGZHENGBIANJIASHANGSHIYEBIAN)。ERSUIZHEXINXINGCHENGZHENHUAHEXIANGCUNZHENXINGDEJIAKUAISHISHI,XIANGCUNJIANSHE、JINGZHUNFUPIN、YIMINBANQIAN、TUDIZHENGYONG、HUANJINGBAOHU、JICENGDANGJIAN、ANQUANSHENGCHAN、ZONGZHIWEIWEN、TESECHENGZHENDENGDENG,DOUXUYAOXIANGZHENZHENGFUZUIZHONG“LUOSHISHISHI”,BINGQIEBIXUTONGGUO“KAOHEYANSHOU”。

金融行业  YUSHI,GEGEXIANGZHENZHENGFUXIANYU“RENZASHIDUO”DEBEIDONGYINGDUIZHIZHONG。POSHIGEGEXIANGZHENZHENGFU,HUIJILIDIAODONGYIQIEKEYIDIAODONGDEZIYUANHERENLI,QUANLITOURUDAOBUDUANXUYAOWANCHENGDEGEGE“GONGCHENGXIANGMU”ZHIZHONG。

  YISHIQUANTIDONGYUAN“YUNDONGSHIZHILI”,SHANGMIANBUZHIDERENWU,SHENMERENWUZUIJINJI,SHENMERENWUKAOHEZUIYANGE,XIANGZHENZHENGFUDOUHUIQUANTIDONGYUAN“YUNDONGSHIZHILI”,PINMINGXIANSHIANQIJIZHONGWANCHENG,SHENZHIBUXIYIQIEDAIJIAHE“BUZESHOUDUAN”。ERSHIBUFENZHOUYE“JIABANJIADIANSHIGONGZUO”,XIANGZHENGANBUCHANGSHUOZIJIDEGONGZUOZHUANGTAISHI“BAIJIAHEI、WUJIAER”,LIANGSANGEYUEBUNENGHUIJIA,CHULECHUNJIEGUONIANDEJITIAN,JIHUYINIANSIJI“SHOUZAIXIANGZHEN”。BINGQIEZHEIJIHUCHENGWEIXIANGZHENGANBUDE“XINCHANGTAI”,“SHEIYEBUGANNAGONGZUOKAIWANXIAO,CHULESHIJIUDEXIAGANG”。WOMENZAIQUANGUOJINBAIGEXIANGZHENDEDIAOYANZHONG,GANBUFANYINGZUIDUODESHI“ZONGYOUGANBUWANDEHUOER”,“MEIWANMEILEDERENWU、MEIWANMEILEDEGONGZUO”。SANSHIBUDUANWAIPINRENYUAN“FUZHUBANGMANGSHIGONGZUO”,GEGEXIANGZHENDEBIANZHIDOUYOUYANGEXIANZHI,ERRENWUXIANGMUDEBUDUANZENGJIA,YOUSHIHENNANANQIWANCHENG。BEIBIWUNAIDEQINGKUANGXIA,“ZIYOUCAILI”DUODEXIANGZHEN,ZEZAIXIANYOUBIANZHIWAIBUDUAN“PINYONG”RENYUAN。ZHEISHIYIXIEJINGJIFADADIQUXIANGZHENDEPUBIANZUOFA,“GONGWUFANMANG”DEXIANGZHEN,XINGZHENGBIAN、SHIYEBIANYUPINYONGRENYUAN,JIBENBAOCHIZAI1∶1∶1DEDAZHIBILI,JIYOU50DUOGEXINGZHENGBIAN,JIUYOU50DUOGESHIYEBIAN,TONGSHI,JIUXUYAOWAIPIN50—60DUORENFUZHURENYUAN(3)。SHENZHIZAIYIXIEJINGJIFADA、WAILAIDAGONGRENYUANCHAOGUODANGDIHUJIRENKOUDEXIANGZHEN,“FUJING”“FUGUAN”“XIEGUANYUAN”JIDUOZHONGMINGMUFANDUODE“FUZHURENYUAN”,YUANYUANDICHAOGUOSUOWEI“ZHENGSHI”DEXINGZHENGBIANHESHIYEBIANRENYUAN。

金融行业  ZAIBUDUANYONGLAIDEGEZHONGGONGCHENGRENWU,JIQI“DABIANCHESHI”XIACHUANDE“ZERENYALI”QUSHIXIA,XIANGZHENZHENGFUJIUXIANGYILIANGWANQUANSHIQU“ZIZHUKONGZHIDEHUOCHE”,SUIZHEGEZHONGYALIHEZERENDEBUTONGBIANXIANGER“DONGBENXITU”。XIANGZHENZHENGFUBEIPO“XIANYU”WANCHENGGEZHONG“RENWU”“XIANGMU”“GONGCHENG”DEFENFANSHIWUZHIZHONG,WANQUANSHIQUZIZHUKAIZHANGONGZUODE“ZHUDONGXING”,JIHUCHENGWEI“BEIDONGSHI”WANCHENG“SHANGJIRENWU”DE“TUI”,GENBENWUFAZIZHUTONGCHOUHEKAIZHANSHIHEBENXIANGZHENFAZHANDEGEXIANGSHIYE。YOUCI,YEJINYIBUJIAJULEXIANGCUNCUNMINZIZHIDE“XINGZHENGHUA”,JIXIANGZHENZHENGFUYEBAGEGE“XINGZHENGCUN”HE“ZIRANCUN”,ZHUBUDIBIANCHENGZIJIGONGZUODE“TUI”。“XIANGZHENYUCUNZHUANGGUOXIE”ZAIYIQI,JIARULEXINGZHENGHUA、YUNDONGSHIYINGDUISHANGJIZHENGFUJIAOBANDEGEZHONGGONGCHENGSHIWUZHIZHONG,FALVGUIDINGDECUNMINZIZHIGONGNENGQUANMIANSHUAIJIAN。

  五、考核检查:乡镇政府在“形式主义”中拼凑应对

金融行业  YOUYUXIANGZHENZHENGFUCHUYU“YALIXINGTIZHI”DEDIZUOJICENG,ZIRANCHENGSHOUZHECENGCENGJIAMAXIACHUANERLAIDEGEZHONGZERENHEYALI。TONGCHANG“YALIXINGTIZHI”YOUQIZISHENDEYUNXINGLUOJI,CONGSHULIANGHUADERENWUFENJIEJIZHI—CENGCENGQIANDINGZERENSHUXIANGXIACHUANDAO—GEBUMENGONGTONGCANYUWENTIDEJIEJUEJIZHI—WUZHIHUADEDUOCENGCIKAOCHAPINGJIATIXI[9]107-108。DANYALIXINGTIZHIYEBINGBUNENGWUXIAN“JIAYA”,FOUZEKENENGDAOZHIJICENGWUFACHENGSHOUERXITONGBENGKUI。JICENGXIANGZHENZHENGFU,DUONIANLAIYIZHICHENGSHOUZHE“ZHONGYA”,HAINENGYOUDUOSHAOYOUXUDECHIXUYUNZHUAN,SHUOMINGJICENGZHENGFUYEZIYOUQI“SHENGCUNDELUOJI”。

  ZHEIBIANSHIGEJIDIFANGZHENGFU、SHENZHISHIYEDANWEIZHONGPUBIANCUNZAIDE“XINGZHENGCELVE”,JI“PINCOUYINGDUICELVE”,YEJIDAJIASHUZHIDE“SHANGYOUZHENGCE、XIAYOUDUICE”,ZHIBUGUOZAIJICENGZHENGFUBIAOXIANDETEBIE“TUCHU”ERYI。JICENGZHENGFUZAIXIANYOUXIANXIANGTIZHIJIAGOU、TEBIESHIXIANXIANGCAISHUITIZHIXIA,TONGSHISHOUDAOZHENGCEHOUGUODEGAODUBUQUEDINGXING,YIJIZIYUANYUESHU、股票配资 CHENGBENDENGZHONGZHONGXIANZHIXINGYINSU,DANGJICENGGUANYUANMIANLINZISHANGERXIAGEFANGJIEZHONGERZHI、DUOZHONGSHENZHIXIANGHUCHONGTUDERENWUYALISHI,TAMENDEXINGWEIGENGDUODIBIAOXIANCHU“BEIDONGYINGFU”DETEDIAN,CHANGCHANGBUDEBUSUISHIDIAOZHENGCELVE,LAIYINGDUIBUDUANBIANDONGDERENWUYALIHEZHIXINGGUOCHENGZHONGSHILIAOWEIJIDEGEZHONGHOUGUO[10]240-241。ZHEIZHONG“PINCOUYINGDUICELVE”,YOUGESHIGEYANGDE“GONGJUXIANG”,ZAIJICENGXIANGZHENDEXINGZHENGYUNZUOZHONG,DOUNENGHENHAODIDEYI“LINGHUOYUNYONG”,TEBIEDITIXIANZAIXIANGZHENZHENGFUYIXILIE“XINGSHIZHUYI”DE“PINCOUYINGDUI”ZHIZHONG。

  CONGZHEIYISHIJIAOLAIKAOCHAXIANGZHENZHENGFUDE“TIZHIXINGKUNJU”,YOUCI,XIAN、XIANGLIANGJIZHENGFUDEJIBENQUANLIGEJURIYIBIANCHENG:XIANJIZHENGFUJIQIZHINENGBUMEN,ZHUYAODEGONGZUOJIUSHI“KAIHUIDONGYUAN、QIANDINGZERENSHU、KAOHEYANSHOU”,ERXIANGZHENZHENGFUZESHIGEXIANGNENGGOUDEDAO“XIHUA”“LIANGHUA”DE“ZEREN”DEZUIZHONG“WANCHENGZHE”。

  ZAIRUCIZHIDADE“YALIYUZEREN”ZHIXIA,YOUYOUYUSHOUDAO“REN、CAI、WU”DEGEZHONGXIANZHI,XIANGZHENGANBUZIRANYEGAODUFAHUIZIJIDE“NENGDONGKONGJIAN”,YOUCICHANSHENGLEGESHIGEYANG、HUAYANGFANXINDE“XINGSHIZHUYIPINCOUYINGDUI”:

  RUGUOSHANGJIYAOKAN“SHUJU”,XIANGZHENJIUBUDUANDITIANXIEGESHIGEYANGDE“BIAOGE”“YAODUOXIHUA、JIUDUOXIHUA”。TIANBIAOCHENGWEIXIANGZHENZHENGFUYIXIANGGAODUJISHUHUADE“ZHUANMENGONGZUO”,BUDANLINGDAOZHONGSHI,HAIYAOPEIBEIZHUANZHIDEDAXUESHENGZHUANRENTIANXIE。ZHIYUTIANXIEDE“SHUJU”SHIFOUZHENSHIKEKAO,YEXUZHIYOU“TIANZHIDAO”。YIGEXIANGZHENMEINIANZHISHAOTIANXIESHANGBAIFEN、SHENZHIJIQIANFENBIAOGE,XIANGZHENLINGDAODEGONGZUO“YEJI”,YEZHUYAOTIXIANZAI“BIAOGESHANG”。XIANJIZHENGFUXIANGSHANGJIHUIBAOXIANYUGONGZUOYEJI,YEGENGYUANYICHENGSHANGGEGEXIANGZHENZHIZAODE“JINGMEIBIAOGE”。

  RUGUOSHANGJIYAOLAI“JIANCHA”,XIANGZHENJIUDAZAOJINGZHIZHUNQUEDE“JIANCHAXIANLU”。BUGUANSHIZHONGYANGLAIDEJIANCHAZU,HAISHISHENGLILAIDEJIANCHAZU、SHILILAIDEJIANCHAZU,YUESHIJIBIEGAODEJIANCHAZU,XIANGZHENLINGDAOJIUYUEZHONGSHI。YIBANJIANCHADECHENGXUSHI:XIANDAOBANGONGSHITINGHUIBAO,TINGWANHUIBAO“TITIWENTI”,ZAIKANKANHUIBAOZILIAO,FANFANGEZHONGJINGQUEBIAOGE,PAIPAIQIANGSHANGDETUPIANHEZHUANLAN。YIQIEKANSI“YANSIWUFENG”,DANYIQIE“CAILIAO”DOUSHIXIANGZHEN“JINGXIN”YUXIANZHUNBEIHAOLEDE。JIGEXIANGZHENSHUJI,JIWOMENCULVEDIHUIGULEYINIANZHONGDOUYOUDUOSHAO“JIANCHA”:MEIYUEDEJIANCHA,BAOKUOGEGEJIBIELAIDEJIANCHA,DAGAISHIDUOCI,YINIANZHIZHONGDEJIANCHAZHISHAODA100-150CIZHIDUO(4)。SUIMONIANZHONG,GENGSHIGEGEXIANGZHENYINGFUGEJIJIANCHADE“FANMANGSHIQI”,YOUSHIYITIANZHINEI,JIGEJIANCHAZUTONGSHIJINZHUYIGEXIANGZHEN。

金融行业  RUGUOSHANGJIYAO“JINCUNKANDIAN”,XIANGZHENJIUHUIDAINIDAOZAOYIDAZAOHAODEYANGBANSHI“MEILIXIANGCUN”,HUANJINGYOUMEI、LVSHUCHENGYIN、LOUFANGXIANLIANG、WAIQIANGFENBAI,WENHUASHI、LANQIUCHANG、XIAOGUANGCHANG、LAONIANHUODONGSHIDENGYIYIQIBEI。CUNWEIHUICHENGYUANYEZAOYIZHUNBEIHAOLEGEZHONGHUIBAOCAILIAO,BINGZHUNBEIHAOLEHUIDAGEZHONGWENTI。

  RUGUOSHANGJIYAO“FANGTANPINKUNHU”,XIANGZHENLINGDAOHECUNWEIHUIGANBUYEHUIDAINIDAOJIGE“PINKUNHUJIALI”,BINGZHUNBEIHAOLEGEJIADEQINGKUANGCAILIAO。

金融行业  QISHI,GEZHONGJICENGZHENGFUCHUYUBUDEYIERWEIZHIDE“XINGSHIZHUYIPINCOUYINGDUI”,RENMENYEXUBINGBUGANDAO“YIWAI”。QIJIBENDE“CUNZAILUOJI”HE“YUNXINGLUOJI”,SHIYIZHI“YINXING”CUNZAIBINGBAOCHIBUBIANDE,BIANHUADEZHISHIQIHUAYANGFANXINDE“XINGSHIZHUYIYUNZUOXINGSHI”。ERQIEQI“PINCOUYINGDUI”DEJIBENGUILVSHI:YUESHIJICENG,QICHENGSHOUDEYALIYUEDA,SHOUDAODEJIANDUYUESHAO,QIXINGSHIZHUYIPINCOUYINGDUIJIUHUIYUEYANZHONG。ZHEIJIUBINGFEIYUANYUGEBIELINGDAOGANBUDE“ZUOFENGHESUZHI”,QISHI,HENDUOXIANGZHENGANBUBENSHENDUICIYESHI“SHENETONGJUE”,WANGWANGYOU“BUDEBUWEIZHI”。DANJICENGZHENGFUZHISUOYIXIANYUGESHIGEYANGDE“XINGSHIZHUYINITAN”,CONGMANGPIYUGEZHONG“PINCOUYINGDUI”,QISHIBEIHOUCUNZAIZHESHENKEDETIZHIXINGZHIDULUOJI。ZHEIYIDIANYEZAOWEIZHUANJIAXUEZHESUOCHAJUE,ZHAOSHUKAIZAONIANZHICHU,CONGGENBENSHANGLAISHUO,XIANGZHENZHENGFUZAIGONGZUOZHONGBIAOXIANCHULAIDEZHONGZHONGWENTI,ZHUYAOBUSHIXIANGZHENZHENGFUBENSHENHUOZHEXIANGZHENGANBUBENRENDEWENTI,ERSHIZHENGFUTIZHIWENTI,GENBENSHANGYINGGAIGUIYINYUZHIDU,GUIYINYU“TIZHIZHETENGXIANGZHEN,XIANGZHENHUNONGTIZHI”[11]。ZHEIYETONGSHISHUOMINGLEXIANGZHENZHILIZHONGCUNZAIDEGEZHONGXINGSHIZHUYIGUJI,JUEFEIYILIANGCI“YUNDONGHUAZHILI”SUONENGGENCHU,ZHIYOUTONGGUODINGCENGSHEJIDEQUANMIANTIZHIGAIGE,FANGCAIKENENGJIAYIEZHI。

  六、乡镇干部:干部队伍的稳定性令人担忧

  XIANGZHENGANBUJUEDADUOSHUDOUSHIDANGHEGUOJIADEHAOGANBU,ZHANGQI配资公司 ZAITIAOJIANJIANKUDETIANYEXIANGCUN,ZHENGZHIYISHIHELIXIANGXINNIANDEJIAQIANGHETIGAO,DANGRANSHIJIWEIZHONGYAODEGANBUSUZHIWENTI,YESHIDIFANGZHILIXIANDAIHUADEZHENGZHIBAOZHANG。DANXIANGZHENGANBUYESHICHUZAI“SHISU配资公司 ”ZHONGDEREN,TONGYANGJUYOU“LIXINGXINGDONGZHE”DETEZHENG[6]42,WOMENZAIJIAQIANGLIXIANGXINNIANZHENGZHIJIANSHEDETONGSHI,YEYINGGAIZHUZHONGZHIDUHUADE“JILIJIZHI”JIANSHE。ZHEISHIWEILAIXINXINGCHENGZHENHUAHEXIANGCUNZHENXINGZHANLVEZHONG,ZUIJUNENGDONGXINGDEZHUTIYINSU,SHIZHONGGUODIFANGZHILIXIANDAIHUABIXUYIKAODE“RENDEXIANDAIHUA”。

  XIANGZHENGANBUZHANGQIGONGZUOZAI“GUOJIADIYIXIAN”,SHIZHIJIEMIANDUIGEZHONGSHEHUI“MAODUN”HE“WENTI”DEQIANYANGANBU,SHENZHIXIANGZHENZHENGFUHEXIANGZHENGANBUZISHENYEKENENGCHENGWEIMAODUNHECHONGTUDEZHONGXINHEYUANTOU[12]3。TONGSHI,XIANGZHENZHENGFUHEGANBUSHIGUOJIAQUANLISHENRUXIANGCUNSHEHUIDEZUZHIHUAYANSHEN,JIYAODAIBIAOGUOJIAYIZHI,YEYAOFANYINGMINZHONGXUQIU,SHIZHENGZHIGUOJIAYUMINJIANSHEHUIDEZHONGJIE“XIEDIAOZHE”,YESHI“GUOJIAYUSHEHUIGUANXI”SHIFOUHEXIEGONGJINDEGUANJIAN“ZHONGJIANBIANLIANG”。HAIYOU,XIANGZHENGANBU,YESHIRENMINQUNZHONGPINGJIAGUOJIAQUANWEIHEZHENGFUJIXIAODEXINGXIANGDAIBIAO,QIGONGZUO配资公司 DEFANZA、SUOSUIHEJIANXIN,SHICHAOYEGONGZHIDESHISHI。DANXIANGZHENGANBUDE“FAZHANQIANTU”HUO“JINSHENGKONGJIAN”YICHENGXIAN“ZHIDUHUAXIAZHAI”,QIGENBENDE“ZHIDUJILIJIZHI”YANZHONGBUZU,KEYIZHENDUIBUTONGDEGANBU,FENBIEDIJIAYIBIANXIQI“XINGDONGDELUOJI”。

  1.ZHUYAOLINGDAO,XIANGZHENDESHUJI、XIANGZHENZHANG,JIHUDOUSHICONG“SHANGMIAN”HE“WAIXIANG(HUIBIYUANZE,BUNENGSHIBENXIANGZHENRENRENZHI)”DIAOLAIDE,ZUIDUORENQILIANGJIE,QIGONGZUODEGENBENDONGLISHI“DIAOWANG”XIANLIDANGFUXIANJIGANBU、HUODAOZHONGYAO“JU”DANG“JUZHANG”。YIBANQUSHISHI,YUENIANQINGDESHUJI、ZHENZHANG,QIWEILAIJINSHENGDEKONGJIANYUEDA,QIGONGZUODONGLIJIUYUEDA。YIGEXIANGZHENDE“GONGZUOYEJI”,YEWANGWANGYUZHUYAOLINGDAODE“ZHENGZHIBAOFU”JINMIXIANGGUAN,YIGEYUEYOUBAOFUDEZHUYAOLINGDAO,YUEKENENGDUIXIASHUGANBUYANGEYAOQIU,YUEJINLITUIDONGGONGZUOJUMIANDEKAIZHAN,YUEYOUKENENGGANCHU“ZHENGJI”ZAOFUYIFANG。XIANGZHENRENDAZHUXIHEXIANGSHOUZHENGKEJIDELAOGANBU,QIJINSHENGQIANJINGANDAN,QIGONGZUODONGLIKENENGYANZHONGBUZU,QIANBUJIUBANSHIDEGONGZUOFANGSHIJIUJIWEIKENENG。

  2.FUZHIDEXIANGZHENLINGDAO,XIANGZHENFUXIANGZHENZHANG、FUSHUJI,QIGONGZUODONGLIYEZHUYAOYUQI“ZHIYEQIANJING”XIANGGUAN。YUENIANQINGDE、YUEYOUFAZHANKONGJIANDEFUZHILINGDAO,YUENENGGONGZUOGANJINGSHIZUHEPEIHEZHUYAOLINGDAOGONGZUO。QI“JINSHENG”YUFOU,QUJUEYUQIGONGZUOYEJI、YUSHUJIZHENZHANGDEGUANXI,YIJIYUXIANJIZHUYAOLINGDAODEGUANXIHESHUXICHENGDU。FANZHI,FUZHIZHONGNIANLINGJIAODADEGANBU,RUGUOKANBUDAOJINSHENGDEXIWANG,QIGONGZUODONGLIJIUKENENGYANZHONGSHOUZU,QIGONGZUOFANGSHIKENENGRUTONGLAOGANBUYIBAN“ANBUJIUBAN”。

  3.XIANGZHENYIBANGANBU,YEJIUSHIFUKEJIYIXIAGANBU,QIGONGZUOSHIJIANZHANG、NIANLINGDADE“LAOTONGZHI”,KENENGXIANGSHOUFUKE、ZHENGKEDEGONGZUODAIYU,DANQIJINSHENGYIDAO“TIANHUABAN”,QIGONGZUODONGLIYANZHONGBUZU。XINJINNIANQINGDEDAXUESHENG,ZUOWEIYIBANGANBU,RUGUO“JINSHENG”YOUWANG,ZEKENENGGONGZUODONGLICHONGPEI,YESHIXIANGZHENGONGZUODEZHUYAOCHENGDANZHE。DANRUGUOBUSHIYINGJICENGGONGZUOHUOZHEKANDAOZIJI“ZHIYEQIANJING”BULEGUAN,ZEKENENGSUISHI“TIAOCAO”,HUOKAOYANJIXUTISHENGXUEYE,HUOXIAHAIZHUANXIANGGONGZIDAIYUGENGHAODEQIYE。

  4.SHIYEBIANDEGANBU,ZHUYAOSHIXIANGZHENSUOWEIDE“QIZHANBASUO”DEJISHUXINGGANBU,RUNONGJIZHAN、SHUILIZHAN、GONGSHANGSUO、CAIZHENGSUO、WENHUAZHAN、SIFASUO、LIANGGUANSUO、XINYONGSHEDEGANBU。YOUYUGEDIGANBURENSHIZHIDUZHONG,YOUSUOWEIDE“XINGZHENGBIANZHI”YU“SHIYEBIANZHI”DE“GELIGUIDING”,JISHIYEBIANZHIBUNENG“ZHIJIE”TISHENGWEIXINGZHENGBIANZHI。BULUNSHIYOUXIANGZHENZHIJIEGUANLIDESHIYEGANBU,HAISHIYOUXIANJIZHINENGBUMENZHUYAOGUANLIDE“ZHANSUOGANBU”,QIJINSHENGKONGJIANYIBANDOUSHIFENYOUXIAN,ZAIQIERSHIJISUI、SANSHIJISUIJIUBEITIBAWEI“ZHANZHANG”“SUOZHANG”,QIZHIYEQIANJINGFAZHANJIUYIJINGJIEJIN“TIANHUABAN”,SUOYI,SHIYEBIANDEGANBU,QIGONGZUODONGLIPUBIANYANZHONGBUZU。

  5.DAXUESHENGZHIYUANZHEHEXUANDIAOSHENG,ZHEISHIXIANGZHENGANBUZHONGZUINIANQINGDEMIANKONG,DANDUOSHUCHUYU“JIUYEYALI”,SHIZANSHILAI“JIUYEXIANGZHEN”。CHUSHAOSHUYOUZHIYUXIANGZHENGONGZUODE,ZHUANXINYUXIANGZHENGONGZUOBINGXIWANGYOUSUOJINSHENGYIWAI,DADUOSHUNIANQINGXIANGZHENDAXUESHENG,BA“XIANGZHEN”ZUOWEIGONGZUOJINGLIZHONGDE“TIAOZHUANPINGTAI”,SUISHIZHUNBEI“KAOYAN”HUO“KAOGONGWUYUAN”LIKAIXIANGZHEN。

金融行业  CIWAI,DADUOSHUXIANGZHENPUBIANCUNZAIDESUOWEI“WAIPINRENYUAN”,YIBUFENKENENGSHIJIUYEBIJIAOKUNNANDEZHONGLAONIANRENYUAN,QIBAXIANGZHENGONGZUOZUOWEI“JIUYEHUKOU”DEWUNAISHOUDUAN,ZHEIBUFENRENJIAONENGANXINFUWUYUFUZHUXINGGONGZUO;LINGYIBUFENSHILINSHIZHAOBUDAOLIXIANGGONGZUOERZANSHI“QISHENXIANGZHEN”DEDAXUEBIYESHENG,BAOZHE“QILVZHAOLV”DEXINTAI,YIFANGMIANZAIJICENGDUANLIANYIXIAZIJI,FENGFUZIJIDEYUELI;LINGYIFANGMIAN,SUISHIXUNZHAOGEZHONGJIHUILIKAIXIANGZHEN。XIANGZHENZHENGFUYESHIBAOZHE“SUISHIQUEREN、SUISHIPINYONG”DETAIDU,DUIDAIZHEIXIE“WAIPINRENYUAN”,DAOZHIDABUFENRENYUXIANGZHENZHENGFUDELIYIGUANLIANHEQINGGANGUANLIANBINGBUSHENHOU。

  ZONGZHI,XIANGZHENGANBUDE“DONGLIGOUCHENG”HE“JILIJIZHI”,GEBUXIANGTONG,QIJINGSHENMIANMAOHEGONGZUOZHUANGTAI,YOUGEZHONGFUZADELIYIHEQINGGANYINSUSUOZONGHEJUEDING。QIZHENGZHIXINNIAN、GERENZHIQU、LIYIFULI、JIAXIANGGUANNIAN、QINGGANNIUDAIDENGDENG,DOUKENENGDUIMEIYIGEGANBUDEXINGWEIFASHENGYINGXIANG。CONGYIBANDETIZHIXINGYINSULAIKAOCHA,XIANGZHENGANBUDEZONGTIZHUANGKUANGSHI:JINSHENGQUDAOXIAZHAI、GONGZUODAIYUDI、配资公司 TIAOJIANCHA,“ZHAODUIXIANGDOUCHENGWENTI”。DANZUIGENBENDESHI“ZHIYEQIANJINGBUJIA”“JINSHENGKONGJIANXIAZHAI”,ZHEIXIEZHIDUXINGXIANZHI,YANZHONGYINGXIANGZHEXIANGZHENGANBUDUIWUDEWENDINGXINGHEJIJIXING。

  七、走出“体制性困局”改革应对

  XIANGZHENZHENGFUZUOWEIZUIJICENGDEGUOJIAZHENGQUANZUZHI,LIYINGFUHE“ZUZHIZUNCONGGUIZEXINGSHI,ZUZHIZHONGDEXUDUOXINGWEIYOUBIAOZHUNDECAOZUOCHENGXUSUOGUIFAN”ZHEIYIFAZHIZHENGFUDEJIBENYUANZE[13]20。DANXIANGZHENZHENGFUPUBIANCHUXIANDEDALIANGPIANLI、BEILISHENZHIBEIFANZUZHIGUIFANDEXINGWEI,SHIYOUZHONGDUODEZHUKEGUANYINSUSUOJUEDING,QIZHONGZUIWEIGENBENDESHITIZHIXINGDEZHIDUYINSU。WOMENYINGZAIJIAQIANGGANBUZHENGZHIJIANSHEYUYEWUSUZHIPEIXUNDETONGSHI,ZHESHOUGENGJUYOUZHANGYUANXING、GENBENXINGDETIZHIGAIGE。

金融行业  ZAIXIANYOUDEXIANFATIXIHEFALVJIAGOUXIA,ZAIBUGAIBIANXIANXINGDANYIZHIGUOJIAJIEGOUXINGSHIDEXIANDINGXIA,TONGGUOJINYIBUSHENHUAXINGZHENGTIZHIGAIGE,LISHUNSHENG、XIAN、XIANGGEZHONGTIZHIGUANXI,FUYUXIANGZHENZHENGFUGENGJIAPINGHENGDE“QUAN、ZE、LI”ZHIDUGUANXI,CHONGFENDIAODONGXIANGZHENZHENGFUGENGDADEZIZHUXINGHENENGDONGXING。

  QIZHIDUXINGBIANGEDESHIZHISHI,TONGGUOJICENGDEZHENGQUANJIANSHEHEZHILIZHUANXING,TUIDONGXIANGZHENZHENGFUMAIXIANG“QUAN、ZE、LI”DUIDENGXIEDIAODETIZHIJIZHI,RANGJICENGZHENGQUANZAIQUEBAODUIJICENGSHEHUIYOUXIAOSHENTOUDETONGSHI,WANCHENGZISHENZUOWEIXIANGCUNSHEHUIGONGGONGQUANWEIZHUTIDESUZAO[14]514。TONGSHI,JICENGZHENGQUANZAIBAOZHANGJICENGSHEHUIZHIXUYUHUOLIDEZHUANGTAIXIA,KAITUOJICENGSHEHUIZUZHIHEMINZHONGCANYUZHILIDEZHIDUQUDAO,JIANQUANJICENGQUNZHONGMINZHUZIZHIDEZHIDUTIXI,CUJINXIANGCUNSHEHUIGONGMINWENHUAHEGONGMINSUZHIDEPEIYUCHENGZHANG。ZUIZHONGJIANQUANXINGCHENGZIZHI、FAZHI、DEZHIXIANGJIEHEDEXIANGCUNZHILITIXI,SHIXIANJICENGZHILITIXIHEZHILINENGLIDEXIANDAIHUA。

  1.FUYUDIFANGZHENGFUGUANLIXIANGZHENDEGENGDAZIZHUQUAN。

  QUANGUOSANWANDUOGEXIANGZHEN,QIDIYUTEZHENGHEFAZHANZHUANGKUANGQIANCHAWANBIE。YANHAIFADADIQUDEYIGEXIANGZHENQICAIZHENGSHOURUYOUDEGAODASHIJIYI,CHANGZHURENKOUJISHIWAN,XIANGDANGYUOUZHOUDEZHONGDENGCHENGSHI。ERZHONGXIBUXIANGDUIPINKUNXIANGZHEN,RENKOUZHIYOUJIQIANREN,MIANQIANGWEICHIJIWANYUANDE“CHIFANCAIZHENG”。ZAIZIZHUGUIHUA、ZIZHUGUANLIXIANGZHENFAZHANFANGMIAN,ZHONGYANGYINGFUYUSHENG、XIANLIANGJIZHENGFUGENGDUODEDIFANGFAZHANZIZHUQUAN。ZAITUIJIN“SHENGGUANXIAN、SHENGGUANSHI”TIZHIGAIGEZHONG,ZHUBUQUXIAO“SHIGUANXIAN”TIZHI。TEBIESHIZAIKUAISUCHENGZHENHUAFAZHANDEDASHIXIA,JINYIBUFUYUSHENG、XIANLIANGJIDIFANGZHENGFU,GENGDUOZIZHUGUIHUAXIANGZHENFAZHANDEZIZHUXINGHELINGHUOXING。ZAIXIANGZHENDIYUJINGJITEBIEFADADEDIFANG,KEYISHIDIANTANSUO“ZHENBIANSHI”GAIGE,SHIXING“XIANGUANSHI(ZHENJISHI)”TIZHI。

  2.XIANJIZHENGFUYINGJINYIBUXIAFANGQUANLI“QIANGZHENKUOQUAN”。

金融行业  XIANGZHENZHENGFUZAIQUANLIYUZEREN、SHIQUANYUCAIQUANDENGFANGMIAN,YINGGENGJIABAOCHIZHIDUXINGPINGHENGHEXIEDIAO。XIANJIZHENGFUYINGXIAFANGGENGDUOCAIQUAN、RENQUANYUSHIQUANJIXIANGZHENZHENGFU,SHIXIANGZHENZHENGFUZHENZHENGCHENGWEIYIJI“QUANZEWANBEI”DEZIZHUZHENGFU。ZAIBUZENGJIAXIANYUBIANZHIXIANEDEQINGKUANGXIA,SUOJIANXIANJIGEGEZHINENGBUMENDEBIANZHI(XIANJIDEGEGEZHINENGBUMEN,DAOSHIYOUHENDUORENFUYUSHIDEXIANXIANG),KUOCHONGXIANGZHENZHENGFUBIANZHIHERENYUAN,QIESHIGAIBIANXIANGZHEN“BANZHENGFU”ZHUANGTAI。SICHUANCHENGDOUDAYIXIANZHENGFUYIJIANGERBAIDUOXIANGGEGEZHINENGBUMENDEGUANLIQUANXIAN,XIAFANGJIXIANGZHENZHENGFU,DALITUIJIN“QIANGZHENKUOQUAN”DESHIDIANGAIGE(5)。TONGSHI,GUANGDONG、ZHEJIANG、JIANGSUDEBUSHAODIQU,ZAI“QIANGZHENKUOQUAN”FANGMIANYEYOUBUSHAOGAIGECHUANGXIN,ZHIDEZONGJIEJINGYANJIAYITUIGUANG。

  3.ZENGQIANGXIANGZHENZHENGFUZIZHUGUIHUAXIANGCUNFAZHANDENENGDONGXING。

  XIANGZHENZHENGFU“BUKANZHONGFU”“YINGFUJIANCHA”,YIJINGCHENGWEIQUANGUOPUBIANXINGWENTI,“BEIDONGGONGZUO”YECHENGWEIXIANGZHENZHENGFUDE“XINCHANGTAI”。ZAI“QIANGZHENKUOQUAN”DETONGSHI,DAFUJIANSHAOGEJIGESHIDE“KAOHEJIANCHA”HE“JIANCHAPINGBI”。TUIDONGXIANGZHENZHENGFUZAIQUANLI、CAILI、RENLIDEYIBAOZHANGDEJICHUSHANG,CHENGWEIFUYOU“ZIZHUQUANLI”HE“ZIZHUKONGJIAN”DEWANBEIZHENGFU,ZIZHUGUIHUAHESHISHIQIEHEXIANGZHENSHIJIDEGEXIANGGONGGONGGONGCHENGHEGONGGONGFUWU。TONGSHI,KAIFANGSHEHUICANYUHEMINZHONGJIANDUDEZHIDUQUDAO,JIAQIANGDUIJICENGGONGGONGQUANLIYUNXINGDEJIANDULIDU。

金融行业  4.GAISHANXIANGZHENGONGZUOTIAOJIANHEGONGZIDAIYU,JIFANIANQINGGANBU“GANSHICHUANGXIN”DEJIJIXING。

  DAFUTISHENGXIANGZHENGANBUDEGONGZIDAIYU(YIGEZHONGXIBUNIANQINGDEXIANGZHENGANBU,YIGEYUE2000—3000YUANSHOURU,XIANGDANGYUYIGEFANDIANDEFUWUYUANSHUIPING)。JINYIBUTUOKUANNIANQINGGANBUDEJINSHENGKONGJIAN,GUIDINGXIANJIYISHANGDEGONGWUYUANRUZHI,BIXUYOUSANNIANYISHANGDEXIANGZHENGONGZUOJINGLI。TONGSHI,WANSHANXIANGZHENGANBUDEXUANBARENYONG、JILIBAOZHANGHEKAOPINGJIANDUDEZHIDUTIXI,TUIJINXIANGZHENZHILIDEFAZHIHUASHUIPING。

金融行业  5.TUOKUANJICENGMINZHONGMINZHUCANYU,JIANQUANXIANGZHENZHILIHEXIANGZHENJIANDUDEZHIDUJIZHI。

  XIANGZHENZHENGFUDAIBIAOGUOJIAZHIJIEYUJICENGMINZHONG“DUIJIE”,JICENGMINZHONGYEZUINENGLEJIEXIANGZHENZHENGFUDE“YEJI”HEGANBUDE“HAOHUAI”。YULAOBAIXINGLIYIZUIMIQIEDEGONGGONGSHIWU,LAOBAIXINGZUI“ZHIGENZHIDI”,GONGGONGFUWUDE“JIXIAOLIBI”,LAOBAIXINGYINGGAIZUIQINGCHU。LAOBAIXINGDE“YIJUJUZHENHUA”,SHENGSIQIANBAIWAN“XINGSHIZHUYIKAOPING”。DANMUQIANZHONGDUODEZHENGFUTIXINEIBUYUNXINGDE“JIANCHAKAOHE”,JICENGMINZHONGGENBENWUFACANYU,GENGMEIYOUZHIDUHUADEJIZHILAIBAOZHENGMINZHONGCANYU。YINGJINYIBUZAIJIAQIANGJICENGMINZHONGZIZHIZHIDU,BAOZHANGCUNMINZIZHIBUDUANGONGGUDEJICHUSHANG,YOUXUKAIFANGXIANGZHENZHENGFUDEMINZHONGCANYUHESHEHUIJIANDU。RUZAIXIANGZHENLINGDAODEXUANBA、XIANGZHENRENDADAIBIAODEZHIZEFAHUI、XIANGZHENJUECEDEMINZHUCANYU、XIANGZHEN配资公司 DEMINZHONGJIANDUDENGFANGMIAN,KAITUOZHIDUJIZHIQUDAO,YINRUJICENGSHEHUIHEMINZHONGDEMINZHULILIANG,TUIDONGXIANGZHENZHENGFUYOUXIAOYUNXINGZAIMINZHUFAZHIDEGUIDAOSHANG。

  XIANGZHENZHENGFUDEXIANDAIHUA,JUEDINGZHEXIANGCUNSHEHUIJICENGZHILIDEXIANDAIHUA,ZHEISHIZUIJIBEN、ZUIJICHUDEGUOJIAZHILICENGMIAN,YESHIGUOJIAYUSHEHUIHEXIEGONGJINDEJICHUXINGGENJI。XIANGZHENZHENGFUZAIZHILIGUOCHENGZHONGMIANLINDEZHONGDUO“TIZHIXINGKUNJU”,JUEFEIXIANGZHENGANBUSUZHISUONENGWANQUANJIESHI,YEJUEBUKENENGTONGGUO“YIDAOQIESHIYUNDONGZHILI”SUONENGJIEJUE。ZHIYOUZAIFALVYUTIZHISHANG,FUYUDIFANGZHENGFUGENGDUODEZHILIZIZHUQUAN,LISHUNSHENG、XIAN、XIANGDEZHIDUGUANXI,CAINENGJIANQUANZIZHI、FAZHI、DEZHIXIETONGZHILIDEZHIDUJIZHI,CAISHITISHENGJICENGZHILIXIANDAIHUADEGENBENZHIDUZHILU。

  参考文献:

金融行业  [1]RONGJINGBEN,CUIZHIYUAN.CONGYALIXINGTIZHIXIANGMINZHONGHEZUOZHIDEZHUANBIAN——XIANXIANGLIANGJIZHENGFUTIZHIGAIGE[M].BEIJING:ZHONGYANGBIANYICHUBANSHE,1998:27-28.

金融行业  [2]LUYILONG,WANGFENGPING.XIANGCUNZHILIZHONGXIANGZHENZHENGFUDESHUANGZHONGKUNJINGJIQICHENGYIN——GANSUSHENGCZHENDEGEANJINGYAN[J].BEIJING:XIBEISHIFANDAXUEXUEBAO(SHEHUIKEXUEBAN),2017,54(5).

金融行业  [3]ZHAOSHUKAI.XIANGZHENZHILIYUZHENGFUZHIDUHUA[M].SHANGWUYINSHUGUAN,2012.

金融行业  [4]ZHOUSHAOLAI.“CENGCENGJIAMA”DEYINXINGJIZHIJIQIZHENGZHICHENGBEN[J].RENMINLUNTAN,2016(7):20-21.

金融行业  [5]ZHOUQIREN.CHENGXIANGZHONGGUO[M].ZHONGXINCHUBANJITUAN,2017:166.

  [6]WULICAI.GAIGEYUZHONGJIAN——ZHONGGUOXIANGZHENZHIDUYANJIU[M].BEIJING:GAODENGJIAOYUCHUBANSHE,2010.

  [7]ZHANGRONGJUN.CAIZHENGKUNJINGYUXIANGZHENZHILI[M].BEIJING:ZHONGGUOSHEHUIKEXUECHUBANSHE,2012.

金融行业  [8]LICHANGPING,DONGLEIMING.SHUIFEIGAIGEBEIJINGXIADEXIANGZHENTIZHIYANJIU[M].SHIJIAZHUANG:HEBEIRENMINCHUBANSHE,2004:2.

金融行业  [9]YANGXUEDONG.SHICHANGFAYU、SHEHUISHENGZHANGHEGONGGONGQUANLIJIANGOU[M].ZHENGZHOU:HENANRENMINCHUBANSHE,2002:107-108.

  [10]ZHOUXUEGUANG.ZHONGGUOGUOJIAZHILIDEZHIDULUOJI[M].SHANGHAI:配资公司 ·DUSHU·XINZHISANLIANSHUDIAN,2017:240-241.

  [11]ZHAOSHUKAI.TIZHIZHETENGXIANGZHENXIANGZHENHUNONGTIZHI[J].ZHONGGUOFAZHANGUANCHA,2005(11):47-49.

  [12]ZHOUQINGZHI.XIANGCUNZHILI:ZHIDUJIANSHEYUSHEHUIBIANQIAN[M].ZHONGGUOSHEHUIKEXUECHUBANSHE,2016:3.

金融行业  [13]ZHANMUSI·G.MAQI·YUEHAN·AOERSEN.ZHONGXINFAXIANZUZHI:ZHENGZHIDEZUZHIJICHU[M].ZHANGWEI,YI.SHANGHAI:配资公司 ·DUSHU·XINZHISANLIANSHUDIAN,2011:20.

  [14]WUYI.XIAOZHENXUANXIAO:YIGEXIANGZHENZHENGZHIYUNZUODEYANYIYUCHANSHI[M].SHANGHAI:配资公司 ·DUSHU·XINZHISANLIANSHUDIAN,2018:514.

  注释:

  (1)CANJIANZHONGGUOSHEHUIKEXUEYUANZHENGZHIXUEYANJIUSUO、“ZHENGZHIFAZHANYUMINZHUJIANSHE”CHUANGXINZUBIAN:《HUNANSHENGHXIANDIAOYANZILIAOHUIBIAN》,2017NIAN,DI56YE。QIZHONGYOUJZHENZHENGFUTIGONGDE《XIANGZHENZHENGQUANQUANLIYUZERENPIPEITUCHUWENTIDEJIDIANQIANJIAN》YIWEN,SHIZHANGQIZAIXIANGZHENYIXIANGONGZUOGANBUDE“SHENQIETIHUI”,YANCIJIQIEDITANDAOLE“XIANGZHENCAIQUANDEQUEFA、XIANGZHENZIZHUQUANDEQUESHI、XIANGZHENDIAOKONGQUANDEQUESUNYUXIANGZHENZHENGFUZHIZEDEPENGZHANG”ZHIQIANGLIEDUIBI。

金融行业  (2)CANJIANZHONGGUOSHEHUIKEXUEYUANZHENGZHIXUEYANJIUSUO、“ZHENGZHIFAZHANYUMINZHUJIANSHE”CHUANGXINZUBIAN:《ZHEJIANGSHENGLEQINGSHIDIAOYANZIYUANHUIBIAN》,2016NIAN,DI75YE。《ZHEJIANGWENLINGSHIDIAOYANZILIAOHUIBIAN》,2017NIAN,DI29YE。《GUANGDONGQINGYUANSHIDIAOYANZILIAOHUIBIAN》,2015NIAN,DI18YE。QISHI,“HUJIRENKOU”YU“CHANGZHURENKOU”DEBUCHENGBILI,SHIZAIQUANGUOGEDIDIAOYANZHONG,ZAIJINGJIFADADE“GONGSHANGXINGCHENGZHEN”SUONENGCHANGCHANGYUDAODEWENTI,YEJIDANGDIDEXIANGCUNZHILIDAILAILEYIXIEJIDADEKUNNAN。SHENZHIZAIZHEJIANGNINGBOSHIDEYIXIEZHIZAOYEFADADEXINGZHENGCUNNEI,WAILAIDAGONGRENKOUYECHANGCHANGCHAOGUOBENCUNDEHUJIRENKOU,YIZHIDUOSHUCUNZHUANGCHENGLILE“LIANFANGDUI”,YONGLAIGUANLIWAILAIRENKOUHEZHUFANGZULIN,YIXIEYOUXIUDEWAILAIRENYUANYEBEIXISHOUJINCUNWUXIESHANGYUGUANLIDEZUZHIZHIZHONG。CANJIAN《ZHEJIANGNINGBOSHIDIAOYANZILIAOHUIBIAN》(YI、ERJUAN),2016NIAN,DI156YE。

金融行业  (3)CANJIANZHONGGUOSHEHUIKEXUEYUANZHENGZHIXUEYANJIUSUO、“ZHENGZHIFAZHANYUMINZHUJIANSHE”CHUANGXINZUBIAN:《ZHEJIANGSHENGLEQINGSHIDIAOYANZIYUANHUIBIAN》,2016NIAN,DI54YE。《ZHEJIANGSHENGWENLINGSHIDIAOYANZILIAOHUIBIAN》,2017NIAN,DI87YE。《ANHUISHENGWOYANGDIAOYANZILIAOHUIBIAN》(DIYIJUAN),2016NIAN10YUE,《ANHUISHENGWOYANGDIAOYANZILIAOHUIBIAN》(DIERJUAN),2017NIAN,DI67YE。

  (4)CANJIANZHONGGUOSHEHUIKEXUEYUANZHENGZHIXUEYANJIUSUO、“ZHENGZHIFAZHANYUMINZHUJIANSHE”CHUANGXINZUBIAN:《ANHUISHENGWOYANGDIAOYANZILIAOHUIBIAN》(DIYIJUAN),2016NIAN,DI54YE,《ANHUISHENGWOYANGDIAOYANZILIAOHUIBIAN》(DIERJUAN),2017NIAN,DI67YE。

  (5)CANJIANLEZHONGGUOSHEHUIKEXUEYUANZHENGZHIYANJIUSUO、“ZHENGZHIFAZHANYUGUOJIAZHILI”CHUANGXINZUBIAN:《SICHUANSHENGCHENGDOUSHIDIAOYANZILIAOHUIBIAN》,2018NIAN。

[ 责编:李志勇(实习) ]
阅读剩余全文(

相关阅读

您此时的心情

光明云投
配资开户 表情排行 /
  • 开心
     
    0
  • 难过
     
    0
  • 点赞
     
    0
  • 飘过
     
    0

视觉焦点

  • ZHANGJIAKOUNINGYUANJICHANGGAIKUOJIANGONGCHENGJIANCHENG

  • JIANGXIJINGAN:SHUQIZUQIULE

独家策划

推荐阅读
2020-08-05 14:05
新华社发(马丁·姆班圭塔摄)  7月24日,在赞比亚首都卢萨卡的一家口罩生产厂,工人用缝纫机制作可水洗口罩。新华社发(马丁·姆班圭塔摄)  这是7月24日在赞比亚首都卢萨卡一家口罩生产厂拍摄的制作完成准备打包的可水洗口罩。
2020-08-05 14:01
8月4日,一名男子在埃及首都开罗戴口罩出行。埃及卫生部3日晚说,埃及境内新增新冠确诊病例157例,累计确诊病例94640例。埃及卫生部3日晚说,埃及境内新增新冠确诊病例157例,累计确诊病例94640例。
2020-08-05 11:18
8月4日,孩子们在河北省遵化市平安城镇大麻各庄村校园操场练习民俗节目。暑假期间,河北唐山遵化市平安城镇大麻各庄村的孩子们在民间艺人的指导下学习舞龙、赶驴、跑旱船等民俗节目,丰富暑期配资公司 。
2020-08-05 11:17
8月4日,游客在湖南省张家界市“百里画廊”茅岩河景区体验水上漂流项目。张家界“百里画廊”茅岩河景区水上漂流避暑休闲项目受到游客青睐,人们在高山峡谷间的茅岩河上漂流冲浪,乐享夏日清凉。
2020-08-05 10:56
8月4日,人们走在合肥长江180艺术街区。合肥市瑶海区长江180艺术街区所在地原是一片工业厂房,为有效利用老工业厂房,保留工业文化特色,当地在旧厂房内注入现代元素,将其打造成为集创意办公、文创展示、公共阅读、体育健身等功能为一体的文创园区。
2020-08-05 10:47
2020-08-05 10:40
2020-08-05 10:39
这是8月4日在法国巴黎拍摄的一份巴黎旅游地图和一个口罩。据法国媒体4日报道,法国首都巴黎计划在部分户外场所强制市民佩戴口罩,包括塞纳河两岸、大型露天市场、火车站周边、公园等,以应对新冠疫情反弹。
2020-08-05 09:57
8月4日,旅客在杭州火车东站出行。杭州火车东站对车站内的出租车候车区、母婴服务室、自助临时身份证明打印等服务进行系列升级改造,进一步方便广大旅客出行。杭州火车东站对车站内的出租车候车区、母婴服务室、自助临时身份证明打印等服务进行系列升级改造,进一步方便广大旅客出行。
2020-08-05 09:53
这是在呼伦贝尔陈巴尔虎旗牧云山顶拍摄的莫日格勒河(8月3日摄,无人机照片)。今年暑期,内蒙古呼伦贝尔通过暂行周末2.5天弹性休假工作制度,发放旅游、餐饮消费券,景区推出优惠促销活动等措施,提振当地旅游市场。
2020-08-05 09:44
这是8月3日在阿富汗楠格哈尔省首府贾拉拉巴德拍摄的发生袭击事件的监狱内部。包括袭击监狱者在内共37人死亡,另有约50人受伤,部分囚犯越狱。8月3日,一名安全部队成员在阿富汗楠格哈尔省首府贾拉拉巴德发生袭击事件的监狱附近巡逻。
2020-08-05 09:40
8月4日,黎巴嫩首都贝鲁特发生爆炸后浓烟滚滚。警方和医务人员说,爆炸至少造成10人死亡,大量建筑物受损。警方和医务人员说,爆炸至少造成10人死亡,大量建筑物受损。警方和医务人员说,爆炸至少造成10人死亡,大量建筑物受损。
2020-08-05 09:23
2020-08-05 09:12
2020-08-04 16:28
一个“可以托付生命的人”——记“最美新时代革命军人”毛青
2020-08-04 13:27
近年来,獐岛村结合当地优美的海岛景观,在保护生态环境的基础上,积极发展以旅游业为龙头,捕捞业、养殖业为两翼的绿色产业。目前,獐岛村村集体资产超2亿元,人均年收入超6万元,村里建成了80余家渔家乐式旅店。
2020-08-04 11:14
8月2日,在海南省琼海市嘉积镇,两只飞鸟在水牛头上休息、觅食。8月2日,在海南省琼海市嘉积镇,飞鸟在水牛身上休息、觅食。新华社发(蒙钟德 摄)
2020-08-04 11:01
2020-08-04 10:51
8月3日,白鹭在唐山南湖公园飞舞。近日,大批鹭鸟飞抵河北唐山南湖公园,在此觅食、嬉戏。近日,大批鹭鸟飞抵河北唐山南湖公园,在此觅食、嬉戏。近日,大批鹭鸟飞抵河北唐山南湖公园,在此觅食、嬉戏。
2020-08-04 10:37
加载更多